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University of Minnesota

Kathryn A. Martin Library

Open Educational Resources (OER) Research Guide

5 Rs of Open Education Resources

The 5 Rs of Open

In order for a resource to qualify as an Open Educational Resources, users should be able to:

  • Reuse --- use the content in a wide range of ways (e.g., in a class, in a study group, on a website, in a video)
  • Revise --- adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content itself (e.g., translate the content into another language)
  • Remix --- combine the original or revised content with other open content to create something new (e.g., incorporate the content into a mashup)
  • Redistribute --- share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others (e.g., give a copy of the content to a friend)
  • Retain --- make, own, and control copies of the content

(This material is based on original writing by David Wiley, which was published freely under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license at:

OER Resources

OERs can come in a variety of forms; for example: open textbooks, videos, courseware. Here are a few sites to get you started: