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Communication Sciences and Disorders: APA

APA Style

APA Style Websites



Redirect this page to the relevant page(s) on the Citation Styles guide.


You should use the citation style listed below. You have a pdf copy from the instructor.

ACSM_MSSE Reference Style

The reference list shall be in alphabetic order (rather than in the order of citation) and numbered. There shall not be more than 40 references for original investigations. Review articles are limited to 75 references. All references shall appear in the text. The format for references is that which has been adopted by the United States National Library of Medicine [Patrias K. National Library of Medicine Recommended Formats for Bibliographic Citation. Bethesda (MD): The Library; 1991. Available from: NTIS, Springfield, VA; PB91-182030.] and employed in Index Medicus. For those not included in Index Medicus, adhere to the form established by the American National Standard for Bibliographic References. Examples of the types of references are as follows:
1. Book
o Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale (NJ): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988. 567 p.
o Paffenbarger RS, Hyde RT, Wing AL. Physical activity and physical fitness as determinants of health and longevity. In: Bouchard C, Shephard
   RJ, Stephens T, Sutton JR, McPherson BD, editors. Exercise, Fitness, and Health. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 1990. p. 33–48.
2. Government Report

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Bone Health and Osteoporosis: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Surgeon General; 2004. 436 p. Available from: U.S. GPO, Washington.
3. Journal Article
Blair SN, Ellsworth NM, Haskell WL, Stern MP, Farguhar JW, Wood PD. Comparison of nutrient intake in middle-aged men and women runners and controls. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1981;13(5):310–5.
4. E-Journal Article
Vickers AJ. Time course of muscle soreness following different types of exercise. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders [Internet]. 2001 [cited 2001 May 31];2(5). Available from: 2474/2/5. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-2-5.
5. Web site home page
American Heart Association Web site [Internet]. Dallas (TX): American Heart Association; [cited 2006 Jan 1]. Available from:

Note: In-text reference citations shall be baseline in parentheses, not superscripts [e.g., (14,15), not 14,15]. Personal Internet Web sites, Master of Science theses, personal communications, or other unpublished material are not acceptable as references. All book references require page numbers. Journal abbreviations should follow the abbreviations of Index Medicus published by the Library of Congress. Use of et al.—If fewer than seven (7) authors are listed, all should be mentioned. When seven or more authors are named, list only the first three.

Other Citation Resources


Note that the MLA Handbook is the Official Guide and the others show examples as they have been interpreted by librarians, faculty, and others.

MLA handbook for writers of research papers (7th ed.). New York : Modern Language Association of America, 2009.

Ref LB 2369 .G53 2009(located on 2nd floor near Research & Information Desk)

MLA handbook for writers of research papers (6th ed.). New York: Modern Language Association of America.

REF LB 2369 .G53 2003

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